1. Cotton: Cotton fibers are fibers covered by cotton seeds, referred to as cotton. The cotton fiber from which cottonseeds are removed is called lint or raw cotton.
Varieties: According to the fiber thickness, length and strength, raw cotton can generally be divided into three categories of long-staple cotton, fine cotton and cotton.
Structure: The cotton fiber is a tubular body with one end open, and after drying mature, it collapses into a hollow ribbon. The main component of the cotton fiber wall is cellulose with a high degree of polymerization. In the dried mature cotton fiber, the content of cellulose is above 95% and it is a highly pure cellulose resource in nature.
Performance: Cotton fiber is generally thin and soft, and the skin feels more comfortable. It has a strong ability to absorb moisture. Under normal circumstances, cotton fiber is stronger than dry. Poor elasticity can be used for crease-resistance finishing of cellulose so that it has better shape retention. Cotton fiber is warmer. At high temperatures, the plasticity is better. If the cotton fiber is in contact with sunlight for a long time, the strength will be reduced and the fiber will become hard and brittle: In case of oxidants, bleaching powders or dyes with oxidation properties, the fiber strength will also drop, and it will become brittle and hard.
2. Hemp: Hemp fiber is the earliest textile raw material for human beings.
Variety: Castor and linen
Structure: The chemical composition of ramie fiber is generally 65% â€‹â€‹~ 75%. After degumming, the fiber is white and shiny and good fiber, called refined hemp.
In Japan, ramie fabrics are also called ramie fabrics. The cellulose of flax accounts for 70%~80%.
Performance: Hemp fabric feel stiff, wrinkle recovery is poor, poor wear resistance; poor heat resistance, washable; moisture absorption and desorption, good air permeability and poor dyeing.
Variety: Cotton wool - The narrow sense of wool on textiles often refers to cotton wool. Cashmere - also known as cashmere, is a valuable textile raw material.
Structure: Wool fiber belongs to protein fiber and mainly consists of scale layer, cortex layer and medullary layer.
Performance: The strength of wool fiber is poor, but its elasticity is good. The wool fabric is stiff, easy to wrinkle, and has strong plasticity. Wool fiber is superior to other fibers in terms of warmth, and has better moisture absorption and air permeability. Acid resistance is better, alkali resistance is poor, and sunshine hours should not be too long. But it is easy to infest and mildew.
4. Silk: Silk fibers are the only long fibers in natural fibers.
Variety: silkworm, tussah silkworm, ramie silkworm, cassava silkworm, etc., to the best quality of silkworm.
Structure: Silk consists of silk fibroin and sericin.
Performance: silk - moisture absorption, good water resistance, water permeability, light resistance and poor heat resistance. Tussah silk - poor dyeability, easy to produce water stains.
Double Gong silk - poor luster, heavy fabric, unique style. Cocoon silk---Processed from waste silk, waste cocoon, and silk cloth as raw materials, it has good luster, strength, warmth, and hygroscopicity, but it can easily fluff after washing.
5. Chemical fiber: Chemical fiber refers to fiber made from natural or artificial macromolecule material. It can be divided into recycled fibers and synthetic fibers depending on the source of raw materials.
Variety: Synthetic fiber (polyester, polyamide, acrylic, vinylon, vinyllon, spandex), recycled fiber (regenerated cellulose fiber, rich fiber)
Performance: Regenerated Cellulose Fiber---feel weak, soft and lubricious, with good moisture absorption, good air permeability, good dyeing property, but poor wet fastness and elasticity.
Strong fiber - strong, durable, shrinkage, elasticity, good alkali resistance.
Polyester - good elasticity, good strength and wear resistance, not easy to deformation; but poor moisture absorption, airtight, easy to fluff, knot ball.
Nylon - high strength, good wear resistance; moisture absorption, poor permeability, easy to fluff, ball.
Acrylic - also known as synthetic wool, moisture absorption is not good enough, poor wear resistance.
Vinylon - also known as synthetic cotton, good moisture absorption, wear resistance, light resistance and corrosion resistance are better.
Chloro-polyester - strong chemical resistance, good insulation properties; but poor heat resistance.
Spandex --- also known as Lycra, excellent elasticity. Generally combined with other fibers or made of core spun yarn.
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